# Earth Layers, Lunar Features, Atmospheric Boundary Layer: An Overview

## Earth Layers, Lunar Features, Atmospheric Boundary Layer: An Overview

### Question

1. The question requires the main layers of the earth, and the densest layer.

### Layers Of The Earth

The earth has three main layers.

1. The core is closest to the center of the earth and consists of the inner and outer cores.
2. The mantle consists of a lower mantle and an upper mantle.
3. The crust is the less dense layer of the oceanic crust and the continental crust.
4. Of these three layers, the inner core has the highest density.

If the ocean floors of the Eurasian and North American plates moved 60 kilometers apart over 3.3 million years, how far apart would they be in one year? Unit conversion: 60 km equals 60,000,000 mm = 6 x 107 mm.

3.3 million years equals 3,300,000 years = 3.3 x 106 years.

If the plate slips 6 x 107 mm in 3,300,000 years, how much will it slip after 1 year?
Drift = = 18.18mm/year

Therefore, the Eurasian and North American plates are moving apart by 18.18 mm each year.

This question requires her three primary sources in today’s Earth’s atmosphere.
The three main sources of the atmosphere are gases (mainly nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon), water vapor, and dust particles.

This question should explain how the sun heats the lower part of the atmosphere in a continuous process. The sun is so hot that it emits shortwave radiant energy. Shortwave radiation has a shorter wavelength and higher energy. This radiation travels through space and reaches the surface of the earth.

The earth’s surface and objects on it absorb the sun’s energy and emit it again in the form of long-wave radiation (infrared). Due to energy loss, the energy of longwave radiation is lower. This energy emitted from the earth heats the lower part of the atmosphere (Abdusamatov).

It should be noted that clouds and other objects on or near the surface of the earth also absorb shortwave terrestrial radiation and emit it into the atmosphere. This can be achieved through radiation, conduction and convection. Heat from the sun penetrates the atmosphere and reaches the surface of the earth by radiation. Heat is transferred from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere by convection due to the movement of the wind, and the surface of the earth is warmed. This question asks for an explanation of the effect of greenhouse gases on the temperature of the earth.

Greenhouse gases can absorb and emit radiation. The sun’s shortwave radiation reaches the earth’s surface and is re-radiated in the form of long waves. Greenhouse gases absorb and release heat, increasing the temperature of the atmosphere. Because they capture heat from the surface of the earth, less heat escapes from the atmosphere because most of the heat is captured and not released into space. This accumulation of heat in the atmosphere leads to rising temperatures, a phenomenon known as global warming (kweku).

This question requires him to describe three features of the moon visible through a telescope.
The three main features of the moon are mountains (highlands), impact craters, and maria (oceans).

Impact craters on Earth’s moon are formed by impacts from fast-colliding space objects. A total of 5,185 craters span a length of 19 kilometers. The moon is like a desert with valleys and mountains, the interesting ones being Piton and Pico. The moon also has a maria called “sea” formed by the eruption of an ancient volcano.

How the Maria was made and why the opposite side has less Maria than the near side.

3.9 billion years ago, as the Moon cooled and solidified during its formation, some areas subsided, forming depressions on its surface. These submerged areas were filled with flowing lava, forming maria or “oceans”. Since there is no water on the moon, these regions were filled with lava during ancient lunar volcanism (Nissani). Another theory suggests that these low-altitude regions, where Maria forms, were formed by impacts on the moon’s surface with asteroids or other objects.

The thin crust on the near side of the Moon allowed more volcanic activity in ancient times, resulting in more craters and maria. This explains why there are fewer marias on the other side of the moon because the crust is thicker and less volcanic eruptions occurred.

Formation of mountains on the moon.

The lunar mountains were formed only by impacts of large asteroids and other space junk that hit the moon’s surface. This is because the Moon has no crustal plate movement or volcanic activity, and therefore mountains and plateaus are the result of impacts and collisions with steroids.

An explanation of the prevailing theories of the formation of the Earth’s moon.

A leading theory of the Moon’s formation is the Giant Impact Hypothesis, also known as the Big Splash. It suggests that the Moon formed when an object collided with the early Earth and the evaporated chunks of Earth were ejected into space. The particles were then held together by gravity to form the moon. The moon’s density is lower than that of Earth because the material the moon formed after the collision came from the crust.

The reason the golf ball hit the moon is why it flew farther than it did on Earth.
The moon’s gravity is one-sixth that of Earth’s, so the ball travels farther than it does on Earth before being affected by gravity.
Since the moon has no atmosphere, there is no air resistance. The golf ball flew farther than it would have if it hit the ground because there was no force impeding the ball’s forward motion. References

Abdu Samatov, Habibro I. “Effects of Atmospheric Penetration of Solar and Surface Radiation on Earth’s Climate.” Journal of Geographic Information Systems 2.4 (2010): 194–200.

Kwek, Darkwar Williams. “Greenhouse Effect: Greenhouse Gases and Their Impact on Global Warming.” Scientific Research Journal and Reports 17.6 (2018): 1-9. .

Nissani, Moti. “Phases of the Moon.” Journal of Science Activities 31.3 (1994): 26-29.

Xuelong Chen, Juan A. An and Zhongbo Su. “The Deep Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Significance to the Stratosphere and Troposphere Exchange over the Tibetan Plateau.” 8.2 (2013). <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235757845_The_Deep_Atmospheric_Boundary_Layer_and_Its_Significance_to_the_Stratosphere_and_Troposphere_Exchange_over_the_Tibetan_Plateau

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