Discuss the characteristics perspective on leadership.
Describe the functional view and its advantages over the feature view.
Explain the relationship between situational variables and the effectiveness of different leadership styles.
Leadership and problem-solving capabilities of a person and an organization. It is to contribute to personal achievement and common goals by guiding subordinates. According to Seibold, leadership cannot be explained by the role of the designated leader. Leadership occurs when a leader’s intervention motivates subordinates to achieve goals, that is, achieving goals, solving internal problems within the group, and improving the ability of subordinates to work together. group members (Seibold, 1979). This article aims to define leadership, explain leadership characteristics, analyze leadership styles, and compare team problem-solving approaches.
In this section, the definition of leadership will be given. Leadership can be defined as the communication of behavior that enables a leader to influence, direct, motivate, and control a group of followers. According to Beebe and Masterson, the most effective leadership behavior is one that can meet the needs of the group (Beebe and Masterson, 2015).
In this section, an explanation of leadership characteristics will be analyzed. The trait that explains leadership is a combination of personal attributes. Affected by a combination of personal attributes that the leader possesses. Previous research on this issue has determined that a number of attributes such as intelligence, dominance, social awareness, self-confidence, and egalitarianism influence leaders in the decision-making process. Recent studies on the trait perspective indicate that social competence, creativity, and emotional competence influence leaders. Leadership can be influenced by physical traits. Leaders are expected to be active and proactive in their relationships with other subordinates. According to recent studies, leaders must have certain abilities, which are self-control, cheerfulness, discipline, flexibility, and justice (Seibold, 1979).
To define the Leadership Traits perspective, it can be said that leaders possess through personal attributes or qualities. In some situations, the Leadership Trait perspective is effective. A leader can use the Trait perspective while leading troops into battle. The qualities or attributes required to lead subordinates in this situation are different from other leadership positions such as running a business and meeting (Seibold, 1979). The dominant attribute of a leader that can be helpful in certain situations turns out to be counterproductive. There are several downsides to the Trait Leadership perspective. What attributes are important to becoming a leader and what attributes are important to maintaining the position are not defined by the leadership trait approach. These are the weak points of traits that, while they are useful in one situation, are ineffective in another.
In this section, analysis and description of transformational leadership will be provided. Three transition thresholds will be defined in this section. Transformational leaders are responsible for motivating subordinates to go beyond personal interests and to work in teams to achieve the common good. To describe leadership in an organization, transformational leadership is one of the most suitable leadership styles. This type of leadership is concerned with changing the elephant and unifying the goals of subordinate team members. This type of leadership motivates subordinates to pursue interesting and shared goals. According to the literature on management and public administration, when analyzing transformational leadership style, it can be said that there are four outstanding characteristics of this leadership style (Seibold, 1979). The four characteristics of transformational leadership are known as the Four Egos. The first “I” refers to idealized leadership. The second “I” refers to inspirational motivation. The third “I” refers to intellectual stimulation. Finally, the fourth “I” refers to personal considerations.
Transformational leaders are concerned with creating an inspiring vision for subordinates of what can be achieved through idealistic leadership. By acting as a role model and displaying a charismatic personality, this type of leader captures the interest of followers to become more like the leader. This concept helps the transformational leader build trust among his followers and vice versa, subordinates build trust in their leader (Seibold, 1979).
Motivational motivation is the transformational leader’s ability to communicate to inspire subordinates to take action. Leaders must instill confidence and motivation of subordinates to achieve common goals. Having a clear vision of the future will allow transformational leaders to communicate with their followers not only to inspire but also to motivate. Power, a sense of authority, and the right communication skills can be helpful to a leader in inspiring trust in his followers by using his ability to inspire. To inspire and motivate subordinates, leaders must be enthusiastic and optimistic to see the positive side.
Intellectual stimulation refers to a leader’s ability to inspire subordinates to question the status quo and procedural assumptions. To maximize subordinate involvement, transformational leaders allow their subordinates to participate in the decision-making process. By prioritizing innovative and creative solutions for followers, this type of leadership can build follower engagement.
The ability to support and nurture all the positive attributes, strengths and qualities of individuals can be called personal consideration. Personal considerations can enable a transformational leader to help his followers achieve greater good. Each individual in a group has a specific interest. Using personal considerations, the leader identifies the specific interests of each follower.
According to Peter Senge, three essential skills are needed for a transformational leader. These three skills can be helpful for a transformational leader to lead their followers effectively. Creating a shared vision is the first essential skill. Creating and challenging mental models is the second essential skill for a transformational leader. The third essential skill involves systems thinking. There are three different approaches to understanding group problem solving: the descriptive approach, the functional approach, and the prescriptive approach.
This approach detects specific communication patterns that occur when a team member interacts to solve a problem. Rather than providing specific instructions for solving group problems, this approach provides insight into how most groups solve problems (Seibold, 1979). There are four elements in this approach namely Orientation, Conflict, Emergence and Consolidation. This problem-solving approach is useful for a team to understand how teams typically solve problems. This approach emphasizes effective communication because of its contribution to problem solving. This approach detects the requirements of the main tasks. As a key element, effective communication is used in this apple to solve problems effectively. Tasks that must be completed to maximize the effectiveness of a team are defined by a functional approach. According to Randy Hirokawa, there are five main functions that can create a high-quality solution. The first step is to prepare a suitable understanding of the problem (Seibold, 1979). The second step is to prepare the requirements for the right selection. The third step is to prepare some alternatives as a solution to the problem. The fourth step is to evaluate the positive aspects of the options for solving the problem. The fifth step is to evaluate the negative aspects of the problem-solving options. This approach assumes that groups are goal-oriented and that achieving the specific communication functions of the target group must be performed.
To develop team problem-solving performance, the rule method uncovers specific plans and techniques. This approach provides specific recommendations for ordering certain types of communication within a group. This approach assumes that a team needs more than a common understanding of how teams deal with problems and the importance of the primary function of team communication. Solving a do’s and don’t is recommended with this approach (Hartwig, 2010). To achieve the goal, the perspective approach invites group members to adopt a particular behavior (Seibold, 1979). This approach is based on the hypothetical ideal procedure. According to Fisher, a two-factor perspective approach that is rational team members and proposed work boards will provide a better solution.
Therefore, this article concludes that leadership benefits every organization. Leadership Traits are a set of attributes that help leaders make decisions. In this article, transformational leadership is analyzed to determine its meaning. Four
I, characteristics of transformational leadership are analyzed. Finally, a comparison between the descriptive approach, the functional approach, and the prescriptive approach to group problem solving is made to identify the differences between these three approaches.
Beebe, S. and Masterson, J., 2015. Communicating In Small Groups: Principles And Practices. 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, pp.Chapter 9 & 10.
Hartwig, R. T. (2010). Facilitating problem solving: a case study using the devil’s advocacy technique. Group facilitation: a research and applications journal, 10, 17-31.
Seibold, D. R. (1979). Making meetings more successful: Plans, formats, and procedures for group problem-solving. The Journal of Business Communication, 16(4), 3. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/195724997?accountid=3055.
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