Please read through the following case study. Reflect on your learning and your own research within this unit.
Prepare a response that responds to each of the issues presented below. Your responses must reflect your knowledge, skills, and application for this unit.
|Brown has been visiting the dentist regularly every 12 months for the past eight years. This recent recollection revealed early demineralization of the buccal surface, gingival marginal enamel of his molars. He noted that for the past four months he has had a “tingling” in his throat and needs to relieve the tickling. He was eating a bag of mild menthol lozenges every day.|
|Demineralization removes mineral ions from HA crystals in hard tissues such as enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone. The recovery of these mineral ions in HA crystals is called remineralization (Jablonski, Nothelfer, Morawietz, Kiesow, Korbmacher, 2020). The early stages of tooth decay are usually painless and can be difficult to detect. Plaque builds up on the surface of your teeth. Plaque is full of bacteria. This bacteria weakens tooth enamel and begins to break down tooth minerals. The importance of the saliva test is to serve both as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for determining a patient’s risk of caries and as a visible aid for educating patients (Ghazali, Mohammad , Ramli, Yazid, and Ibrahim, 2019). For saliva testing, both stimulated and non-stimulated saliva tests are used. These two types of saliva have different roles and properties. Evaluating both, the test results become a very important diagnostic and communication tool. Avoiding sugar, chewing sugar-free gum, getting proper rest, brushing your teeth, and using a fluoride toothpaste are the most important factors in recovering from demineralization. Saliva testing can be performed by measuring the flow of stimulated saliva. H. Have the patient spit her into the cup for 5 minutes while chewing the sterile wax.|
Brown’s resting test showed that his saliva was acidic. Record the results and explain the results and any advice to Mr. Brown about the results.
|pH 14 is the most alkaline and pH 0 is the most acidic. Brown’s rest tests were very acidic. H. Results were recorded at pH 2 (Khan, et al., 2018). Acidic saliva causes tooth sensitivity, discoloration, bad breath, and tooth decay. The normal pH of saliva is between 6.2 and 7.6. Proper toothbrushing is required. Fluoride mouth rinses are recommended to neutralize acid, dairy products are recommended, and sugar-free gum is recommended after meals to stimulate salivation. Gargle with hot water and drink clear liquids to soothe a sore throat. This symptom can be caused by external irritants such as excess mucus in the throat or smoke. To motivate patients, it is recommended to eat fruit with meals rather than between meals. Also, eat a balanced diet, avoid soft drinks and juices, and avoid consuming acidic drinks. Mr. Brown must be on the right medication for this. Also, never brush your teeth immediately after eating something acidic (Krichauff, Hedges, & Jamieson, 2020).|
|A 30-year-old lawyer visits your office and the dentist observes multiple carious lesions on the interdental surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular first and second molars. The patient talked about his busy life and long working hours, often eating fast food on his way home late at night. He has always done so, and flosses only occasionally, so once a day, in the morning, is enough. He is a heavy smoker, drinks five cups of black coffee a day, and seems to have many questions about his current oral health, including dietary issues.|
They were asked to discuss with their patients how to improve their oral health prevention habits, including the benefits of fluoridated toothpaste. Consider changing your diet or keeping a food diary. Describe what you are discussing with the patient and why. (minimum 200 words)
|The first sign of new carious lesions is the appearance of white, chalky patches on the tooth surface, indicating demineralization of the enamel. Fluoride is highly recommended as the most effective means of caries prevention and demineralization. We also recommend using a fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride has a positive impact on oral health by making teeth more resistant to cavities. Fluoride can also stop or reverse tooth decay that has started. I help educate my patients on how to stop tooth decay. Patients should follow her four main principles: Advice on healthy eating. Increased availability of fluoride. and placement of the crack sealant. Patients are asked how to replace dinner with fast food, what is wrong with brushing twice, and how to avoid excessive smoking and drinking habits. Tools such as videos and magazines can be used to influence patients. Additionally, calcium-rich foods such as low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, cheese, and fortified soy milk are recommended to promote strong teeth. Phosphorus is a mineral found in eggs, fish, red meat, dairy products, nuts and beans that helps keep teeth healthy. Also, ask the patient to set a reminder on their cell phone to keep track of themselves. To keep your mouth healthy, we have regular check-ups every week.|
|You have been asked by a doctor to review the brushing methods of an 8-year-old patient.|
We explain how this is done, who to involve, and what tools are available to help patients understand the importance of plaque removal. (minimum 200 words)
|In order to teach children the habit of brushing their teeth, parents also need to engage in oral hygiene instruction in a fun way. Children imitate what their parents do, so it is easy to make them learn by watching their parents (Ibrahim, Helaly, & Ahmed, 2021). A tool to help patients understand their importance. There are even dental education picture books that teach children the importance of brushing each tooth and using a pea-sized amount of commercial fluoride toothpaste. If your child doesn’t like it, ask the parent to change the flavor of the toothpaste as well. It is also important to brush the boundary between teeth and gums. Parents must stand in front of their children during cleaning. It is very important to gently brush in small circular motions, clean each tooth individually, and polish the inside, outside and chewing surfaces of your teeth. Electric toothbrushes are also used and a reward system is implemented to motivate and check patients. Another way to explain the importance of removing plaque to children is to teach them not to eat lollipops or sweet chocolates if their teeth are in poor health. It can also cause you to lose teeth, develop bacteria in your body, and cause sore throats. Use calcium sources such as milk, broccoli, and yogurt in the patient’s diet to maintain strong teeth. Only parents are responsible for their child’s dental hygiene. Therefore, they should be involved in child brushing techniques (Ilyas, Ashraf, Jamil, 2018)|
Ghazali, N., Mohammad , N., Ramli, H., Yazid , F., & Ibrahim, A. Z. (2019). Level Of Salivary Flow Rate, pH Level, Buffering Capacity After Consumption Of Malaysian Tualang Honey: A Preliminary Study. . Journal of International Dental and Medical Research., 6.
Ibrahim, , R. H., Helaly, M. O., & Ahmed, E. M. (2021). Assessment of Brushing Techniques in School Children and Its Association with Dental Caries, Omdurman, 2019. International Journal of Dentistry. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4383418
Ilyas, M., Ashraf, S., & Jamil, H. (2018). TOOTH BRUSHING TECHNIQUES: RELATIVE EFFICACY AND COMPARISON IN THE REDUCTION OF PLAQUE SCORE IN 8-11 YEARS OLD CHILDREN. The Professional Medical Journal, 25(01), 135-139.
Jablonski, A. M., Nothelfer, R., Morawietz, M., Kiesow, A., & Korbmacher, H. S. (2020). Impact of self-assembling peptides in remineralisation of artificial early enamel lesions adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-10.
Khan, M. S., Dighe, K., Wang, Z., Srivastava, I., Daza , E., & Schwartz-Dual, A. S. (2018). Detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in human saliva using an ultra-sensitive nanocomposite of graphene nanoplatelets with diblock-co-polymers and Au electrodes. Analyst, 143(5), 1094-1103.
Krichauff, S., Hedges, J., & Jamieson, L. (2020). There’sa wall there—and that wall is higher from our side’: drawing on qualitative interviews to improve Indigenous Australians’ experiences of dental health services. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186496
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