Assessing the health behavior of UK citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic

Recruitment Of The Sample

yes. Health and well-being have been severely impacted during the pandemic, reflected in social distancing, higher mental health, higher mortality and delayed clinical treatment. In this case, the aim of the study is to determine the health behavior of the UK population.

I can’t say that. Bloomfield and Fisher (2019) reported that in cohort studies, samples must be recruited based on similarity of exposure status and must be outcome-free. The case does not mention a true cohort recruitment, but the cohort recruitment could take into account the 4,168 confirmed cases since 13 April. Non-random sampling with different media initially performed differently and thus failed to recruit in an acceptable manner (Phillips et al., 2021).

yes. Health behaviors of the samples were measured by follow-up after 3, 6 and 12 months. However, demographic data refer to demographic data on pre-existing illness, maternal education, ethnicity, and comorbidities (Rutberg, S. & Bouikidis, 2018). yes. In cohorts, outcome measures are important to address study bias (Ranganathan & Aggarwal, 2018). In this case the results were measured using the SF12v1 assay. This includes cough reduction, fever, loss, and basic mental and physical health behaviors.

yes. Confounders are irrelevant factors that influence changes in the fate of dependent and independent variables, reducing bias (Sul, Martin & Eskin, 2018). The researchers identified all important confounders that could influence the study results. For example, the study addressed pre-existing medical conditions, maternal education, ethnicity and comorbidities, children under 5 years of age, gender-level factors, and demographic data on caregiving responsibilities (Phillips et al., 2021).

  1. The researchers considered all confounding factors in their design. However, confounding factors such as the following may influence the results: B. Stigmas related to infection, access to healthcare, and lack of awareness of infection. Stigma and lack of awareness associated with infectious diseases often limit positive health behaviors and thus may bias the achievement of clinical outcomes (Phillips et al., 2021).
  2. von Allmen et al. (2019) suggested that study validity is usually focused on the completeness of follow-up. In this case, follow-up employed a longitudinal design, with a follow-up rate of 73%. The projected follow-up rate is 4,168 (43%) confirmed cases since April 13, when they consented to the study.
  3. Toledano et al. (2015) suggested that follow-up studies should focus on 2–4 years. in this case,

This result suggests that infection prevention behaviors are higher than other behaviors, as most of them indicate hygiene behaviors, use of PPE, vaccination preparation, social distancing, etc. (Phillips et al., 2021). The screening rate for this study has also increased due to the impact of COVID-19.
I can’t say that. No data is mentioned on how valuable the results are. Graphs show differences such as 13.3 to 14.4 at baseline completion (Phillips et al., 2021).

Yes.

No precious dates are given, so it is difficult to predict the accuracy of the results. However, most of the recent literature points to such results. Limited discussion of findings limits transparency of results.

Yes.

People around the world share similar physical and mental health behaviors, so research findings can be extrapolated to local populations. In this context, the study involves the UK population, so it can also be conducted in UK locals. To introduce outcomes into the UK population, socioeconomic status, health care, biological factors, gender, race and ethnicity should be considered (Keogh-Brown et al., 2019).

Do the results of this study match other available evidence?

Consistent with available evidence, other studies suggest that people often exhibit PPE, social distancing, high early detection, social deprivation, and acceptance of vaccination. However, emerging evidence also points to risks for mental health conditions such as social isolation, anxiety and depression, suicide, and substance abuse (Naughton et al., 2021).

Measurement Of Outcomes

This research will help professionals in early detection and awareness of infection and providing support services for social distancing.

Hygiene behavior, use of PPE, vaccination readiness, and social distancing are demonstrated as described in the paper. British citizens also show higher levels of fear and stigma against infectious diseases, which worsens their mental and physical health. This research is of great importance in promoting public health and contributing to improved physical and mental health. For example, the UK already has guidelines in place to prevent transmission of COVID-19, but adherence to prevention guidelines is limited (Patel et al., 2020).

Data collected from research will help NHS health care providers and other health care providers advocate for appropriate resources to practice social distancing and prevent transmission (Patel et al., 2020). Daniel (2020) reports that many healthcare providers have limited access to her N95 mask and other personal protective equipment, and limited educational resources and guidelines to support clinical care services. Did. This study provides evidence on health behaviors in populations and healthcare settings to help healthcare providers find resources for PPE, hand sanitizer, and adequate space for social distancing. The research will help world leaders develop appropriate COVID-19 policies that health care providers and local governments can follow to maintain social distancing and preventive measures. . Contemporary literature suggests that many locals fear contagion and the stigma associated with infection. As a result, many of them are unwilling to seek medical services in an emergency, while others rarely reveal infections that can lead to death.

This research will help governments and public health agencies promote knowledge about risk factors, physical effects, treatment and prevention through brochures and social media promotions (Moneyetter, 2020). As participants were recruited through social media, educating them on infection prevention through social media will improve adherence to social distancing, disclosure, vaccination, and access to support services. The mental health of UK citizens has become a major concern during COVID-19 due to distance from loved ones, fear of contracting illness and limited access to services. (Savage et al., 2020). This program will support professionals who advocate for early mental health screening and online her mental health services to prevent serious mental health problems during the pandemic. Delays in care have been observed as a fundamental aspect of reduced utilization of primary and clinical facilities, particularly in Wales (Gonzalez et al., 2021).

In this case, the paper is meant to advocate electronic medical records and online support for patients suffering from infectious diseases. Using online support instead of physically seeking clinical help can reduce the risk of infection and allow patients and health care providers to support clients without becoming infected during peak infections (Gonzalez et al. al., 2021). The study will also provide UK public health with insights into how to implement rapid vaccination and access to critical resources at the height of the outbreak. This promotes positive experiences and positive health behaviors and reduces negative experiences and health behaviors.

References:

Bloomfield, J., & Fisher, M. J. (2019). Quantitative research design. Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses Association, 22(2), 27-30. https://search.informit.org/doi/abs/10.3316/INFORMIT.738299924514584

Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3/

Geldsetzer, P. (2020). Knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 among the general public in the United States and the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional online survey. Annals of internal medicine, 173(2), 157-160. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/full/10.7326/M20-0912

Gonzalez, D., Karpman, M., Kenney, G. M., & Zuckerman, S. (2021). Delayed and Forgone Health Care for Nonelderly Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/103651/delayed-and-forgone-health-care-for-nonelderly-adults-during-the-covid-19-pandemic.pdf

Keogh-Brown, M. R., Jensen, H. T., Edmunds, W. J., & Smith, R. D. (2020). The impact of Covid-19, associated behaviours and policies on the UK economy: A computable general equilibrium model. SSM-population health, 12, 100651. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827320302883

Naughton, F., Ward, E., Khondoker, M., Belderson, P., Marie Minihane, A., Dainty, J., … & Notley, C. (2021). Health behaviour change during the UK COVID?19 lockdown: Findings from the first wave of the C?19 health behaviour and well?being daily tracker study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 26(2), 624-643. https://bpspsychub.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjhp.12500

Patel, R., Barnard, S., Thompson, K., Lagord, C., Clegg, E., Worrall, R., … & Waterall, J. (2020). Evaluation of the uptake and delivery of the NHS Health Check programme in England, using primary care data from 9.5 million people: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 10(11), e042963. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/11/e042963.abstract

Phillips, R., Taiyari, K., Torrens-Burton, A., Cannings-John, R., Williams, D., Peddle, S., … & Hallingberg, B. (2021). Cohort profile: The UK COVID-19 Public Experiences (COPE) prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study of health and well-being during the SARSCoV2 coronavirus pandemic. PloS one, 16(10), e0258484. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258484

Ranganathan, P., & Aggarwal, R. (2018). Study designs: Part 1 – An overview and classification. Perspectives in clinical research, 9(4), 184–186. https://doi.org/10.4103/picr.PICR_124_18

Rutberg, S., & Bouikidis, C. D. (2018). Focusing on the fundamentals: A simplistic differentiation between qualitative and quantitative research. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 45(2), 209-213. https://www.proquest.com/openview/af62fd5b0442e59b2729d9fcf7348456/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=45638

Savage, M. J., James, R., Magistro, D., Donaldson, J., Healy, L. C., Nevill, M., & Hennis, P. J. (2020). Mental health and movement behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic in UK university students: Prospective cohort study. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 19, 100357. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1755296620300417

Sul, J. H., Martin, L. S., & Eskin, E. (2018). Population structure in genetic studies: Confounding factors and mixed models. PLoS genetics, 14(12), e1007309. https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1007309

Von Allmen, R. S., Tinner, C., Schmidli, J., Tevaearai, H. T., & Dick, F. (2019). Randomized controlled comparison of cross-sectional survey approaches to optimize follow-up completeness in clinical studies. Plos one, 14(3), e0213822.

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