Paul collier focuses on inequality between countries. and he thinks

Paul collier focuses on inequality between countries. and he thinks

Research Paper

In this paper you will be responding to the ideas of two of the three books and authors on which we have focused in class: Chang’s 23 Things, Collier’s Bottom Billion, and Green’s From Poverty to Power. Your paper needs to do the following three things:

  • Explain the approach to change that each author would take in response to the issue you chose.
  • Compare the two approaches: What are their main similarities and differences?
  • Identify which of the two approaches to change do you prefer for this issue and explain why.

In carrying out these tasks you should:

  • Give a brief overview of each author’s approach to change (see note at the beginning of this document). Make sure you support the overview by citing material written by or about each author. As much as possible try to use your own words rather than lengthy quotes to sum up each author’s approach. This overview should not take up more than 1½ pages (350 words) of your paper.
  • Identify at least two important points of comparison between the two authors’ approaches to change. At least one of these should be a difference. Make sure you support the points in your comparison by citing material written by or about each author.
  • Clearly state which of the two approaches you prefer. (Hints: You can say one author’s approach is more likely to be effective, or you can argue that both have crucial flaws, or some other answer in between these two extremes. Remember that you are talking about their approach vis-à-vis a specific issue; this isn’t a general response to the two authors’ ideas.) Give at least two reasons, with supporting evidence from your research sources for your answer. Remember this is the most important part of your paper; it should take up at least 2 pages (500 words).

Paper Format

Your paper should be formatted as an essay, meaning written in paragraph form without bulleted lists. Use transition sentences rather than headings to signal which of the three tasks you are writing about. Your paper should not be much more than 1500 words (roughly 6 pages), and not less than 1000 words (roughly 4 pages). Your references list does not count toward this total. Use a legible font (i.e. 11 or 12 point) and double-space your paper.

There will be a separate Research Paper dropbox for this assignment. Please submit it in either a Word compatible format (.doc or .docx) or in PDF.

Research Expectations

In addition to reading and referencing the two authors’ books, you should read and make reference to at least two recent scholarly sources (i.e. substantial, research-based articles from scholarly journals or chapters from scholarly books that have been published since 2005). Appropriate research beyond this minimum will receive a higher grade.

Documentation of Research Sources

Your paper must include appropriate in-text references for any information taken from any article, book, case study or internet sources you used in your research. This includes both direct quotes and points where you have taken either facts or significant ideas from the source, even though you express them in your own words. Your references should be formatted according to the Chicago author-date system or the APA system. In both formats it is important that you, as a student, include the page number(s) when providing the location of the information you used. You can find a quick help with these formats at Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab ( ) and copies of the reference manuals for each in the library’s reference section as well as in the Tutoring Centre. If you are including information that is not common knowledge in your paper, it is best to have a reference for it. You should have a reference for each piece of information like this, not just put one reference at the end of a paragraph or page. It is much better to have too many references than too few.

Your paper should end with a references list (APA format or Chicago name-date format) of all the research material you used to write the paper. Be sure to include a full reference for the two authors’ books here, plus any non-scholarly and internet sources you consulted in the process of writing your paper.

Marking Guide

The template that follows is a rough guide to the weight I will give to different parts of the research paper.Some elements—such as failure to properly document sources or inadequate/inappropriate research—may result in lower grades in other areas as well.

  • Clear, research-based answer to the first question (shows knowledge of the two authors plus issue of focus)—about 20% of the grade
  • Clear, research-based answer to the second question (shows knowledge of the two authors plus ability to make critical comparisons)—about 20% of the grade
  • Clear, research-based answer to the first question (shows knowledge of the two authors and issue of focus plus ability to make evidence-based evaluations)—about 30% of the grade
  • Base of research for the paper and proper, consistent documentation of sources in text and in references list using either APA or Chicago format—about 20% of the grade
  • Clear organization of paper and quality of writing (grammar, punctuation, spelling, etc.)—about 10% of the grade

Getting Help

You can get help identifying appropriate research sources (or determining whether a source you have found is scholarly) from a librarian at the reference desk on the library’s main floor. If you are not sure what counts as a scholarly source, please review the points in the Beginner’s Guide on the Library website ( Remember that finding something via a scholarly database search increases the chances that the item is a scholarly source, but you should still check to make sure that it meets most of the criteria listed under Scholarly vs. Popular Sources.

++++Down here is the research plan from which we have to take information through the link given and cite them.{this research plan will help you to complete the research paper}+++

Research Plan/Outline and Research Paper Instructions

Plan due Tuesday, 18 February 2020.The plan is worth 2% of your final grade.

Paper due on or before Sunday, 29 March 2020.The paper is worth 10% of your final grade.

Research Plan/Outline Instructions

Your research plan will provide a roadmap for the paper. To draft your research plan/outline you should review book chapters we have already covered in the course for the two authors, plus look at the readings for assignments 7, 8 & 9. You will also need to identify scholarly research sources for the different parts of your paper.

Your research plan should contain the following:

An outline of the main ideas you need to include in your paper and research sources for them:

  • summary of each author’s approach to change. (Hints: You can use information from Assignments 8 & 9 for this part of the plan/outline. This summary should not include quotes form the two authors. Make sure that your overview of the two approaches to change does not take up more than 60% of your plan/outline.)
  • For each author, identify at least one additional source (i.e. other than the book used in class) that will help you understand what each author thinks about issue you have chosen. Briefly (i.e. 1-2 sentences for each source) explain how these sources will help you understand these authors’ positions. Provide a properly formatted reference for each of these items using either the APA or Chicago Manual format. (Hint: Scholarly sources, published interviews or TED Talks are preferred to general online sources.)
  • The main similarities and differences between the two approaches to change. (Hints: Don’t name all the possible similarities and differences here; choose only the ones you think are important enough to include in your paper. You might compare goals of change or definitions of the issue, the scale at which the author thinks change should start, the actors involved in the change or the methods they should use.)

Duncan Green

In his first section of his book From Poverty to Power he focuses on inequality because it is a big issue in his perspective, and it is the issue that he most worries about in the book as well. His approach suggests that inequality hinders people from developing their full capabilities. Inequality creates many problems. It wastes talent, undermines society and its institutions, undermines social cohesion, limits the impact of growth of economy.

Duncan Green is concerned about the inequality among the individuals.

According to Duncan Green, the problem of Inequality can be solved with effective states and active citizens. Societies should have a social foundation and environmental ceiling. The goal of development economics according to him must be to bring humanity into the safe and just safe.

Paul Collier;

Economic Growth is the Core Idea. Inequality is not the center idea for Paul Collier. In his perspective, Economic Growth helps everybody. When economic growth happens, incomes will grow. But the economic growth has to be a certain type of Growth. As a neo-classical economist, he thinks that people need an incentive to work harder to achieve economic growth. For instance, it wouldn’t be considered as growth if there is a group of powerful people controlling the oil resources of a country are putting the profits in their own pockets. In his book The Bottom Billion, Inequality couldn’t make it to the index. And it shows how much Collier would focus on inequality.

Paul Collier focuses on inequality between countries. And he thinks that the income gap among the countries is pulling them down. This gap can be fixed with Convergence. Convergence focuses on lifting the bottom billion countries from poverty by developing them at a faster rate than the developed countries.

As President of Tanzania, Rashid Kawawa stated “we must run while others walk.” Similarly, the bottom billion countries have to grow exceptionally faster to come the same level of development as those of developed countries. And that is how Collier thinks gap is going to shrink.

His core idea change is of economic growth. For good change to happen, a country will need good governance, good and appropriate policies, and natural resources to figure out how the country is going to fit with the economic seam of the international setting through Convergence.

Green, Duncan. (2016, Month Date). A historical view of the politics of inequality. Unesdoc.

This document is published by the UN and is written by Duncan Green. He explains four historical cases studies of countries with inequality and asserts the fact that the decline in inequalities can depend on various factors in these diverse cases. For an instance, the interactions between policy and politics; between top-down leadership and bottom-up action; between deliberate responses and others unrelated to inequality in itself; and between measures aimed at both vertical and horizontal inequalities.

Collier, P. (March,2008) .Retrieved from

TED talk by Paul Collier with the title of The Bottom Billion is the additional source I chose to help me understand the issue I have chosen to work upon. In this TED talk, Paul Collier talks about giving hope to the bottom billion through the alliance of compassion and enlightenment of self-interest. He later talks about Resource Curse and blames bad governance for it.

The way that these two authors have approached a change is very different. For Paul Collier, for change to happen, someone in the bottom billion has to step up to bring change. For him, these people are the heroes and the reformers. Sometimes, when ordinary people try to bring change, they are killed or imprisoned. However, when someone in the position of power tries to bring a change, things change for good. These reformers are also assisted by external experts which help assisting good change. So, for Paul Collier, change starts from the top and eventually branches out as administration thins out.

For Duncan Green, in contrast, Change is driven by a group of people from the bottom of the chain where they organize themselves and make some demands to the government authorities. As it is natural, their demands are not accepted, and the process of struggle begins. The people keep pushing and the state keeps resisting their demands. People become more empowered citizens and the state becomes more effective and fairer. And that is how good change happens (through active citizens and effective states).

  • Identify at least two recent, scholarly research sources that contain information that will help you evaluate which of the two authors you think provides a better approach to change vis-à-vis the issue you chose. Briefly (i.e. 1-2 sentences for each source) explain how these sources will help you evaluate the two agendas. Provide a properly formatted reference for each source using either the APA or Chicago Manual format.

The first additional source is the document that helps to evaluate two: first, it zooms in on the poorest billion based on a multidimensional approach and, second, it goes beyond national aggregates to understand the bottom billion. Later, it introduces the Multidimensional Poverty Index, which includes information on health, education, and living standards, and is published in UNDP’s Human Development Report.

Alkire, S.; Roche, J.; Seth, S (2013). Identifying the ‘Bottom Billion’: Beyond National Averages. Retrieved from

The second research source that I choose is the book by Branco Milanovic, the Haves and Haves Not. The book focuses on the both the Inequalities that the Paul Collier and Duncan Green talk about. The inequality among the citizens and the inequality among countries. I will pick up excerpts from this book to support their approach to change and inequality.

The Haves and the Have-Nots by Milanovic, Branko (Ebook)https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.uwinnipeg.idm.o

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