Understanding Vygotsky’s learning theory: The role of culture, environment, and social interaction

Understanding Vygotsky’s learning theory: The role of culture, environment, and social interaction


Main Idea

Do you write a short concluding paragraph at the end of your paper?
Use 4 or 5 resources including both Textbneks Fight and LC courses, up to 2 additional trusted sources (libraries/databases only). Please be sure to cite it in the text.

Private speech: According to the theoretical concept, Vygotsky believed that the development of speech and voice in children initially occurs orally and vocally and gradually progresses towards internalization of language (Mooney , 2013). Example: It is common for 5-year-olds to talk to themselves while playing. When children reach the age of 6 or 7, they internalize the vocal processes that were once spoken out loud. This form of private or internalization of language, theorized by Vygotsky, enhances children’s learning by providing self-regulation and planning skills (Rathus & Rinaldi, 2015).

Zone of Proximal Development: This theory is used by Vygotsky to indicate the distance between an extremely difficult activity that a child can perform alone and the child’s difficulty learning that activity when given help. it was done. According to this theoretical perspective, Vygotsky posited that a child’s learning ability is significantly related to the type of interaction he or she has with peers and teachers (Mooney, 2013). Example: A child who is given a difficult arithmetic sum will learn the calculation more easily with the teacher’s guidance than when doing the same task alone. Role of culture and environment in learning: According to this theoretical perspective, Vygotsky believed that children’s learning depends not only on the nature of their interactions with adults (zone of proximal development), but also on the cultural influences prevailing in society. We hypothesized that this would also be highly relevant to practice. the child’s environment (Rathus & Rinaldi, 2015); For example, children’s learning today is greatly influenced by their interactions with teachers and the cultural perspectives they receive at home. This means that children whose parents rely heavily on technology may have a different learning experience than children whose families and parents live in rural areas without technology.

This statement primarily indicates the value of independence and culture in learning, which Vygotsky and Piaget explored in different ways. For example, depending on age and developmental stage, infants exhibit environmentally oriented motor skills during the first few years of life. According to Piaget, such learning is mostly acquired or learned by children independently of imitation by adults, unless the child is mature enough to understand it. However, Vygotsky assumed that “running into the wall of one’s own inadequacies” has little effect on learning, and that such a young child can be taught to learn something independently and without help. I believed that there would be little benefit. Therefore, Piaget’s theory demonstrated children’s independent learning, whereas Vygotsky’s theory assumed that age and developmental stage could primarily influence cultural and social orientation (Berk & Winsler, 1995).

Piaget and Vygotsky

One of the important influences of Vygotsky’s theory observed in the infant flight framework is the theoretical aspect of “roles of culture and environment in learning.” One of the core values ​​of early childhood communities mentioned in the Flight Framework is the importance of “intercultural competency and communication,” which means respecting and empathizing with children’s diverse cultural backgrounds. (Makovichuk et al., 2014). ). In fact, as Vygotsky’s theory shows, a child’s learning is highly related to the cultural environment and cultural values ​​of the family generations in which the child is surrounded (Rathus & Rinaldi, 2015).

One of the key objectives identified in the Flight Framework is the need to work with families and promote children’s learning and participation in early learning environments (Makovichuk et al., 2014). This can be easily linked to Vygotsky’s ideas about the zone of proximal development. According to this aspect of Vygotsky’s theory, a child’s learning is significantly facilitated when the child is supported by a parent, friend, or teacher compared to when the child is alone in the learning environment (Mooney , 2013).

I generally agree with the social learning theory proposed by Vygotsky. This comes from many personal experiences I had as a child, which relate well to this theory. I remember when I first started playing loudly with toys and cars when I was 4 years old. Not only did I gradually overcome this habit, but this change also led me to write down my thoughts at the time in a personal diary. I still use this habit when brainstorming ideas. In fact, this experience can be well related to Vygotsky’s recognition of private language and how the internalization of language facilitates children’s self-learning and thinking abilities (Mooney, 2013).


Therefore, this essay successfully discusses important aspects of Vygotsky’s life and the central theoretical elements of his learning. In conclusion, understanding Vygotsky’s learning theory will greatly help in understanding the role of culture and social environment in influencing children’s learning.


Berk, L. E., & Winsler, A. (1995). Scaffolding children’s learning: Vygotsky and early childhood education. NAEYC Practical Research Series. Band 7. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-1426 (NAEYC-Katalog Nr. 146).

Makovichuk, L., Hughes, J., Rilett, P., and Thomas, N. (2014). Flight: Alberta’s early learning and care approach. Retrieved from flightframework.ca.

Mooney, C. G. (2013). Child theory: An introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky. Red Leaf Press.

Larsas, S. A. & Rinaldi, C. M. (2015). Travel in development. Nelson training.

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