Ethical and legal aspects of in vitro fertilization in the UAE

In Vitro Fertilization And Ethics

In vitro fertilization is an advanced fertility treatment in which sperm and eggs are mixed in an artificial environment outside the uterus. Some of the embryos that have formed can be placed in the woman’s uterus, where they will attach and develop into the uterine wall. Very rare side effects related to drugs and IVF treatments (Asplund, 2020).

Following the recent passage of the revised IVF law, the United Arab Emirates has issued special guidelines to amend and simplify a number of restrictions related to forest assisted reproductive technologies. ready (Inhorn, 2021). From a Muslim point of view, it is acceptable and advisable to seek a cure for infertility. All advanced assisted reproductive technologies are legal under Islamic Shariah law (Serour & Serour, 2019).

This in-depth study will elaborate and highlight the ethical and legal aspects of in vitro fertilization, drawing on the ethical considerations of Islam Shariah and recent legislation enacted by the government of the United Arab Emirates issued by the United Arab Emirates.

There seems to be a fragile relationship between the rapid pace of technological development and changing cultural attitudes due to the anomalies of in vitro fertilization (Lawrenz, et al., 2020). Despite secularization, religion continues to play an important role in IVF law and practice in some countries, such as the United Arab Emirates (Inhorn, 2021). Ethics is the branch of ethics and is conducted methodically. Simply put, the three aspects of this ethical study are UAE government regulations, healthcare and Islamic perspective.

The President of the United Arab Emirates, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, presented the revised IVF Ordinance on December 19, 2019. The previous IVF law has been replaced by the current IVF law, effective effective January 1, 2020. Guidelines with the revised IVF law have been published. in the Official Government Gazette 2020. (United Arab Emirates Regulations on Medically Assisted Reproduction, 2022)

Pre-implantation preservation of embryos, eggs and sperm is one of the most important innovations that current IVF regulations have brought to patients who choose to conceive (Inhorn, 2021). In the area of ​​assisted reproduction, current IVF regulations also establish a structure based on dialogue and decisions regarding outcome selection and research analysis limitations. These reforms follow the UAE Government’s National Strategy 2021 and the 2071 Century Initiative; both seek to improve the UAE’s global standing.

The revised IVF Law specifically addresses the retention of patient information and the protection of client privacy. This corresponds to the UAE’s increasing focus on data protection and cyberspace, which corresponds to a global impact on the same topic. The stance of the revised IVF law stipulates that egg and sperm donation and the promotion of surrogacy are illegal because only husband and wife must give birth together (Inhorn, 2021). These current IVF regulations have dramatically changed the way embryonic cells are frozen. Embryos can be frozen for up to 5 years in medical clinics under favorable conditions. Embryos cannot be frozen under previous IVF rules. However, only unfertilized gametocytes can be frozen (Asplund, 2020).

There has been great respect and scientific understanding gained in the forty years since the first effective artificial insemination using IVF (Asplund, 2020). Individuals with children are more susceptible than parents if they do not have a good attitude towards their care. People with a high level of knowledge, money or social status are less likely to have a favorable attitude towards their treatment. Research findings that have found a link connecting patients’ views on treatment and their level of maturity or sexuality have yielded mixed results in the direction of the link.

The Role Of UAE Government

The duration of fertility problems is related to patient perception of treatment. Duration of treatment was negatively related to patients’ attitudes towards their medication. The fewer rejected IVF cycles a patient has, the more likely they are to have an unfavorable view of their care. According to Harrison et al (2017), middle-aged women giving birth after IVF are often criticized. Evidence-based arguments include the possibility of events such as normal pregnancy or the death of the woman before the child is ready to support herself and the consequences of these events (Inhorn, 2021).

The healthcare industry has brought about clinical advances that have been shown to be beneficial from a healthcare and patient perspective. Patients want a positive relationship with all fertility workers, but especially with their doctor. They also want everyone at the clinic, especially the doctors, to have a positive mindset. Furthermore, they prefer sensitive fertility clinic staff they can trust. The use of PGT for primary-onset chronic or life-threatening single-gene disorders and structural chromosomal translocations is relatively ethically uncontroversial (Asplund, 2020). Therefore, IVF has proven to be the best solution for patients who experience complications during conception.

Doctors guarantee that this is the safest, future way to get rid of infertility problems. The most pressing ethical concern regarding the performance of IVF or other forms of fertility treatment for unmarried women or those with same-sex partners is the welfare of the child. (Asplund, 2020). Preimplantation genetic testing offers a way to prevent conception of a critically ill child in households where a child has been born with a fairly severe monogenic disease or where there is a high chance of a chromosomal abnormality. possible (Lawrenz, et al., 2020). The doctor’s role is to help a couple conceive, conceive, and give birth effectively. Removal of multiples should not be done on purpose as in IVF; therefore, it is only allowed if some births are spontaneous and affect the survival of many embryos

From a Muslim point of view, it is acceptable and advisable to seek a cure for infertility. All advanced assisted reproductive technologies are legal under Islamic Sharia, as long as they are allowed according to Sharia teachings (Serour & Serour, 2019). Sperm and eggs were collected and the uterus was obtained from the husband and wife during their marital relationship (Inhorn, 2021). However, frozen sperm cannot be used after the death of a spouse.

Unless the following criteria are met, IVF has been certified as legal under Islam. First and foremost, IVF should be performed on both husband and wife. Second, the egg and sperm must come from a spouse (Serour & Serour, 2019). Third, it must take place within the framework of a legal marital relationship. Fourth, a team of trained health care professionals should apply this technique to avoid losing or combining zygotes from different couples while maintaining them in liquid nitrogen. Fifth, surrogacy is not allowed (Rinda, 2019). Finally, more fertilized eggs should not be transported to the uterus than is necessary. Although more eggs are usually fertilized, usually only 2-3 are fertilized. Most healthcare facilities only transfer one or two eggs at a time (Serour & Serour, 2019).

Impact of the revised IVF law on patients

The most ethical path and concerns raised by IVF include the reliability of stakeholder endorsements, partner incentives, and the use and consequences of biological tests that must be performed prior to implantation procedures, eligibility for sex selection or screening of embryonic cells for other characteristics, and storage and disposal of excess embryos.

Suppose there is a growing disagreement from the point of view of Islam. In this case, couples should contact a fertility specialist, ideally a Muslim, whose ideas and attitudes are more likely to align with pro-life values. is a clinician who does not believe in the Quran and hadith (Serour & Serour, 2019). Couples shouldn’t be afraid to ask questions in any situation. Before starting IVF treatment, a couple should have a good understanding of the technique. Couples interested in IVF should plan accordingly according to UAE law and their preference. Making the right follow-up visits and scheduling consultations by performing all types of medical examinations is the most ethical route to resolving issues arising from IVF (Inhorn, 2021). Considering the cost of IVF, this is a difficult method to conceive. According to Colliers, the United Arab Emirates spends more than $200 million annually on fertility therapy such as IVF. (Elkayoubi et al., 2017).

Conclusion:

Pharmaceutical-assisted conception and comparative genomics have always been hot topics in the United Arab Emirates. Perhaps revised IVF laws and guidelines that require more constructive efforts to improve healthcare legislation in favor of clients are extremely promising as they will ultimately contribute to the degree of outcome design. higher clinical profile when considering the ethical and legal aspects of IVF. Pre-implantation embryo storage is one of the most important innovations brought about by current IVF regulations for patients who choose to conceive. From an Islamic point of view, all advanced assisted reproductive technologies are legal under the ethical review of Islamic law imposed by the government of the United Arab Emirates, as long as they are allowed according to the teachings of Sharia. Therefore, efforts to reduce the birth rate are not only allowed but actively encouraged.

References

Asplund, K. (2020). Use of in vitro fertilization—ethical issues. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 125(2), 192-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/03009734.2019.1684405

Elkalyoubi, M., Garg, N., Farag, T. E., Fakih, A., Jain, R., Madkour, W., … & van Gils, C. (2017). The cost-effectiveness of IVF treatments Gonal-F® versus HP-HMG in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Value in Health, 20(9), A522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2017.08.700

Harrison, B. J., Hilton, T. N., Rivière, R. N., Ferraro, Z. M., Deonandan, R., & Walker, M. C. (2017). Advanced maternal age: ethical and medical considerations for assisted reproductive technology. International Journal of Women’s Health, 9, 561. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FIJWH.S139578

Inhorn, M. C. (2021). 13 Infertility, in vitro fertilization, and fertility preservation Global perspectives. The Routledge Handbook of Anthropology and Reproduction. https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YkxDEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT211&dq=in+vitro+fertilisation+UAE+freezing&ots=13wH9xkCnE&sig=jMxpnoexinMZrL5eNnvd69SJaw8&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Lawrenz, B., Coughlan, C., Melado, L., & Fatemi, H. M. (2020). The ART of frozen embryo transfer: back to nature!. Gynecological Endocrinology, 36(6), 479-483. https://doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2020.1740918

Rinda, P. (2019). DUE TO LEGAL POSITION AND LEGAL SURROGACY AGREEMENT AS AN INNOMINAAT AGREEMENT IN THE PERPECTIVE OF CIVIL LAW, ISLAMIC LAW AND NATIONAL LAW. Jurnal Pembaharuan Hukum, 6(1), 90-108. https://scholar.archive.org/work/lwpwp4jrvneatdkw7ocf3mohk4/access/wayback/https://jurnal.unissula.ac.id/index.php/PH/article/download/4672/pdf

Serour, G. I., & Serour, A. G. (2019). The Islamic perspective: Application of advanced reproductive technologies to screen human embryos during IVF. In Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies (pp. 85-93). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816468-6.00010-2

The United Arab Emirates’ Government portal. 2022. The UAE’s provisions on medical assistance for reproduction. [online] Available at: <https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/health-and-fitness/woman-reproductive-and-sexual-healthcare/fertilisation> [Accessed 28 February 2022].

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