400-450 words

After reading the attached case article, please write a paragraph as a case summary, and then respond to the following questions:

1. What are the two characteristics that the identified categories in nominal scales must have? Explain it in detail with examples.

2. Why is the operationalization of variables at a higher level of measurement beneficial to researchers?

3. What is the relationship between lower and higher-level measurements?

4. In your opinion, are the criticisms of Stevens’ typology of measurement scales suggested by the authors meaningful? Explain it in brief.


Case Summary

The case articles talk about the level of measurements and how each of them depends on the other. According to Stevens’ typologies of measurements, measurements are characterized as the assignment of numerals to things so as to represent facts and conventions about them . Stevens’ typology of measurements has been criticized by different authors and to some extent, there are some facts on why they have criticized it.

What are the two characteristics that the identified categories in nominal scales must have? Explain it in detail with examples.

The two characteristics that nominal scales must have are; exhaustive, here the researchers must be able to categorize all cases appropriately. An example is categorizing people based on political affiliation, you cannot put only the existing parties, for example, the democrats and the republicans, this is because you will find there are other people who are not interested in politics and others have not decided on which side to be. Therefore, all these people should be considered in that research. The other characteristics are mutually exclusive, here a case is classified into one single category. An example is in the case of where a certain group of category suits two people and it is supposed to one, in this case, the researcher finds a way of separating the category, for example, rural and farm categories, this could be separated to rural with farm and rural without the farm.


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