Principles of ethics 445n | Philosophy homework help

Peer Post Response

Please write a minimum of five complete sentences for your one peer posting. You should also consider referencing some information from the course textbook, lecture lessons, or a scholarly source to help support your written response post.

This discussion focuses on virtue ethics.

Virtue ethics is considered a normative theory. It is also concerned with the morally right action (Hacker-Wright, 2010). In America, virtue ethics is a part of one’s character. A virtuous person is not motivated by money. Instead, the acts or deeds performed are done out of a need for self-fulfillment. Regardless of the outcome or action is taken, the individual has done what they believe fulfills a good life.

Additionally, virtue ethics has been used to educate others. For instance, some people view walking the straight and narrow as virtuous. By doing so, the individual is committed to the course of action being undertaken. There is no interest in allowing temptations or other kinds of pressures to cause them to lose sight of their goal (Kupperman, 2009). It is important to note that virtues and vices do exist. Even the most moral person can sometimes commit acts that lack virtue. This is simply a part of being human.

According to Gronum (2015), virtue ethics is involved in human nature. How one responds to a situation is a part of human behavior. People have a tendency, at times, to behave inappropriately. People can act immoral. “For example, the desirable habit of punctuality can lead (when one is late for an engagement) to rushing past someone who appears to need help, and a strong tendency to be cooperative and to defer to knowledgeable people can lead to what might be giving excessive electric shocks. Conversely, an oppositional, surly person of the sort that ruins life in any group might be more likely to walk out of the Milgram experiment” (Kupperman, 2009, p. 244).

Additionally, virtue ethics deals with human connections. Aristotle referred to it as the human good. According to McPherson (2013), it was the human good, along with the soul, that gave one virtue. Virtue ethics is also concerned with moral motivations (Rachels & Rachels, 2019). Additionally, virtue ethics deals with discernment (Mason, 2008).

“Consider courage, for example. Someone frozen by apprehensions of danger will be disabled from acting vigorously when crucial ends are in jeopardy. Similarly, the person who can’t control her passions will be deflected from acting consistently and efficiently in pursuit of what in a cool moment is judged worth achieving. That will be the case regardless of whether the individual’s project is to achieve victories on the tennis court, further world peace, or to prove logic theorems” (Lomasky, 2019, p. 689).

In conclusion, virtues do not occur when people isolate themselves from others. Instead, virtue happens with practice (Gronum, 2015). Hence, becoming virtuous is a continual process that requires character. According to Buckle (2002), virtue ethics focus on a person’s character. Character is used to define a person’s uniqueness. Needless to say, some people are considered unique based on virtuous acts. According to Lomasky (2019), when a person is able to focus on the good life, virtue is viewed as valuable.

Attached is a video with more information on virtue ethics (History with Hilbert, 2018).

References

Buckle, S. (2002). Aristotle’s Republic or, why Aristotle’s ethics is not virtue ethics. Philosophy, 77(302), 565-595.

Grönum, N. J. (2015). A return to virtue ethics: Virtue ethics, cognitive science and character education. Verbum Et Ecclesia, 36(1), 1-6. 

Hacker-Wright, J. (2010). Virtue ethics without right action: Anscombe, foot, and contemporary virtue ethics. Journal of Value Inquiry, 44(2), 209-224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10790-010-9218-0

History with Hilbert (2018, May 11). Aristotle’s ancient Greek virtue ethics. [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/tE7yEJdUU7g

Kupperman, J. J. (2009). Virtue in virtue ethics. The Journal of Ethics, 13(2-3), 243-255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10892-009-9051-5

Lomasky, L. E. (2019). The impossibility of a virtue ethic. Ethical Theory & Moral Practice, 22(3), 685–700. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10677-019-10017-7

Mason, S. A. (2008). Working virtue: Virtue ethics and contemporary moral problems. Choice, 45(10), 1691. 

McPherson, D. (2013). Vocational virtue ethics: Prospects for a virtue ethic approach to business. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1463-7

Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260213003

YOUTUBE VIDEO: Aristotle’s Ancient Greek Virtue Ethics

Sample Peer Post

I enjoyed reading the comments that you shared in your initial post as it relates to female circumcision. Valid points were shared related to the world view you held. For example, I appreciated reading information that you wrote related to subjective moral relativist. Also, you shared good information related to the steps that you would take as to whether you can assist the surgeon. Allow me to share some additional insight as it relates to female circumcision as well as my thoughts related to cultural relativism. It is true that equality exists when examining cultures and societies based on a cultural relativist perspective. According to Rachels and Rachels (2019), “Different cultures have different moral codes” (p. 14). As a nurse, my Hippocratic Oath is to do no harm (El-Gibaly et al., 2019). Since female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in a country like the United Kingdom (Bourne, 2018), my cultural beliefs would be in opposition to assisting the surgeon. This is where our views differed.

From your perspective, is it possible to adopt the views of another culture and still remain true to your own beliefs?

Thanks and I look forward to reading your response post.

References

Bourne, J. (2018). Guarding against female genital mutilation. Primary Health Care ), 28(1), 18. https://dx.doi.org/10.7748/phc.28.1.18.s19

El-Gibaly, O., Aziz, M., & Salma, A. H. (2019). Health care providers’ and mothers’ perceptions about the medicalization of female genital mutilation or cutting in Egypt: A cross-sectional qualitative study. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 19.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12914-019-0202-x

Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781260213003/

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Criteria

Initial Post Content: Addresses all aspects of the initial discussion question(s), applying experiences, knowledge, and understanding regarding all weekly concepts.

Evidence & Sources: Integrates evidence to support discussion from assigned readings** OR online lessons, AND at least one outside scholarly source.*** Sources are credited.*

Follow-Up Post: Response furthers the dialogue by providing more information and clarification, thereby adding much depth to the discussion.

Professional Communication: Presents information using clear and concise language in an organized manner (minimal errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).

Notes

*Credited means stating where the information came from (specific article, text, or lesson). Examples: our text discusses…., The information from our lesson states…, Smith (2010) claimed that…, Mary Manners (personal communication, November 2017)…

**Assigned readings are those listed on the syllabus or assignments page as required reading. This may include text readings, required articles, or required websites.

***Scholarly source – per APA Guidelines, only scholarly sources should be used in assignments. These include peer-reviewed publications, government reports, or sources written by a professional or scholar in the field. Wikipedia, Wikis, .com websites or blogs should not be used as anyone can add information to these sites. For the discussions, reputable internet sources such as websites by government agencies (.gov) and respected organizations (.org) can be counted as scholarly sources. Outside sources do not include assigned required readings.

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